The Use of Oil Throughout History

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Posted by JR Olson | Posted in natural resources | Posted on 24-11-2014

As an integral fuel and energy source for societies around the world, oil has shaped social and political debates in the United States for more than a century and a half, ever since it was first tapped in Titusville, Pennsylvania on August 27, 1859.

The United States far and away consumes more oil than any other country in the world. The U.S. consumes nearly 6.8 billion barrels of oil annually, which accounts for one-quarter of the amount of the world’s proved oil reserves, or oil that is ready for production and use. This use powers nearly everything Americans use, including automobiles, manufacturing plants, entertainment venues, etc. How we came to be a nation dependent on oil as a primary energy source aligns with the way in which oil has been used over the ages by different types of civilizations.

Earliest Recorded Use of Oil 

Oil was first produced in the United States in the late 1850s but the discovery and use of oil dates much earlier. It is thought that one of the earliest uses of oil was by the Persian military in 480 B.C., who fired arrows soaked in oil at Athenians during the Greco-Persian War. Holy Roman Emperor (Pope) Charles V adopted the use of oil imports from Venezuela as a treatment for gout in 16th century Rome.

The Middle East, China, and South America all have large petroleum deposits. Chinese wells were created around 347 A.D. with the use of bamboo pole, some of which measured as deep as 800 feet. By 1815, residents of Prague were using oil as a fuel source to light street lamps.

Use of Oil in the United States 

During the Revolutionary War, Native Americans in support of colonial troops taught the American military how to use oil to treat frostbite. After the war, Seneca Oil — named after the Native American tribe residing in upstate New York — became a popular tonic and cure-all for post-revolutionary settlers.

After oil drilling commenced in Pennsylvania, Texas, Oklahoma and the gulf region, the primary use of petroleum oil was for the production of kerosene, used as a fuel for lamps. Gasoline, as a by-product of the production process for kerosene, had little to no commercial use at the time, since the automobile had yet to be invented. Kerosene remained a widely used fuel source for lighting until the invention of the incandescent light bulb.

The Important Uses of Oil 

The development of the auto industry in the United States and throughout the world further expanded commercial use for oil. Although kerosene was no longer necessary as a primary energy source for lighting homes and neighborhoods, oil production increased at greater levels to meet the demands of a newly mobile society. As the U.S. and the rest of the world plunged into two world wars and various other conflicts, the need for oil as a fuel source grew greater.

In addition to fuel for cars, the list of products made from oil include diesel, floor wax, motorcycle helmets, roofing, electric blankets, footballs, bandages, and countless other products. In fact, from a 42-gallon barrel of oil — which creates nearly 20 gallons of gasoline — nearly 150 products are made from oil.

Byline

Marty Princeton, a former fund manager, currently writes on natural resources, precious metals, investment, stock portfolios and other such topics. He believes strongly that there can be considerable returns on oil and gas investments and encourages readers to look further into investing in this area.

Is Blogging a Full-Time Career Option?

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Posted by JR Olson | Posted in Business | Posted on 23-11-2014

Originally the word ‘blog’ stood for web log and referred to an online journal or diary. Now blogs number in the millions and disseminate information on a variety of topics. Individuals use blogs to share their opinions, and companies use blogs to advertise their products. It is possible to make money online through blogging, but before you try to make it a career, you should be aware of what is involved and the possible pitfalls.

Ways to Earn Money Through Blogging

One of the quickest ways to earn money through blogging is to be a content provider for others. Individuals or companies start blogs and then hire people to write them. For this work, bloggers usually paid piece by piece for each post. Similarly, some sites pay guest bloggers for usable posts. However, to earn significant income, you need to set up your own blog or blogs and generate ad revenue through programs like Google Adsense, the Amazon Affiliate Program, ContextWeb and AdClickMedia. Once you get proficient, you can supplement the income from your own blogs by offering blogging design or blogging consultancy services.

Self-Motivation

One aspect of blogging for a living that you should keep in mind from the start is that you must be self-motivated. You are your own boss, and you need to discipline yourself to put in the hours to make it work. In the beginning, there is a learning curve during which you must study and implement the rudiments of setting up your blog or blogs. Afterwards, you need to continue to devote time to creating content and maintaining your websites.

Advantages of Blogging as a Full-Time Career

One of the greatest advantages of blogging as a career is that you are your own boss. You are not subject to an office hierarchy. You work at home. You can dress as you like and keep your own hours. If you enjoy writing, you are doing work that appeals to you. Additionally, it is possible to make a significant amount of money through hard work and a bit of good luck.

Disadvantages of Blogging as a Full-Time Career

The disadvantages of blogging full time are much the same as those of other freelance occupations. Though some make a lot of money blogging, most people do not. For many people, blogging involves long hours of work for very little pay. You do not have the stability of a regular salary, and your income can vary greatly from month to month. Because you are self-employed, you receive no benefits, so you won’t be getting any health insurance or sick leave. You need to set aside money to make your own tax and social security payments. Due to the unstable nature of the Internet, you might lose your host server at any time and have to start again from scratch to rebuild a website it took you years to nurture. Freelancing is also a lonely job, as you have no direct interaction with colleagues.

Despite the drawbacks, plenty of people are attracted to the idea of blogging as a career. Because of the uncertainties surrounding the profession though, consider keeping at least a part-time job as you start out. Build your blog methodically, step by step, and give it time to generate income. As you proceed, you will have the opportunity to assess whether full-time blogging is really right for you.

Byline

Terry Buford writes on web development, blogging, online marketing, banner advertising, the internet and other related topics; to learn more about web development view the resources from coolblueweb.

A Few Recent Notable Instances of Citizen’s Arrest

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Posted by JR Olson | Posted in News | Posted on 23-11-2014

While we often associate criminal arrests with actions taken by a police officer, regular citizens also have the right to place others under arrest, as long as the temporary incarceration is reasonable and follows specific guidelines. Though it doesn’t happen often, a few recent cases have brought attention to the practice. The following incidents prove that a citizen’s arrest is another meaningful way to bring justice to the world.

San Francisco International Airport – Rideshare Drivers

Recently, with the rising popularity of smartphones, tablets, and the possibility of a mobile Internet connection, rideshare companies have popped up in San Francisco offering transportation to those going to and from the airport. While this seems like a rather harmless idea, officials at the San Francisco International Airport have begun arresting drivers on a regular basis, claiming that they are trespassing on the property, and that they are not permitted to operate a driving service without a license or permit from the city.

Philadelphia Man – Potential Robber

A recent case in Philadelphia demonstrated that a citizen’s arrest can strengthen neighborhood safety and is an effective tool for those who are diligent. In this instance, one local man approached another who was sitting in his car, and asked him what he was doing. When the latter made a verbal mistake, the former pulled a gun and placed him under arrest until police arrived. The arrest paid off, too: the parked individual intended to leave drug money in a specific spot, but eventually realized he was in the wrong area.

Russell George – South African Police Officer

While driving on a highway in South Africa, Russell George, a local from Prestbury, witnessed a police car pull into oncoming traffic before coming to a stop in the middle of the road. George, after getting out of his car, began questioning the officer about his ability to drive, as well as whether or not he had imbibed alcohol before getting behind the wheel.

When the police officer refused to get out of the car, George pulled him out and placed him under citizen’s arrest in the back seat of his own vehicle.

Larry Cochrane – Local Woman

Although a citizen’s arrest can often prevent a crime from being committed, this case showed that they must be undertaken according to the law. In this instance, a 66-year-old woman in Billings, Montana, was attempting to pick up a cell phone off the ground when Larry Cochrane, a local man, jumped out of his car and held her at false gunpoint, claiming the phone belonged to his girlfriend. Although he attempted to place the woman under arrest, police quickly arrived and made sense of the situation, eventually carting him away to jail.

Placed Under Citizen’s Arrest

While it may not occur very often, citizen’s arrest is an effective tool for enforcing justice, both domestically and abroad. Though it is not used particularly often, these cases demonstrate to the world that it is still possible to keep the peace with just your own two hands.

Byline

Mitchell Bateman writes on Criminal Defense, Civil Procedure, Personal Injury, Domestic Violence, Commercial Litigation and other related fields.